Technical Writing & Presentation Skills
Madam Sunita Kumari
Enjoy this subject.
How to be Confident
How to Give Speech.
How to write a brochure.
What to include in a Brochure.
How to Layout Brochure
General Guidelines for writing a paragraph.
Essay "Problems Faced by middle class."
Note Taking (Record Reduce Recite Reflect Review )
Why note taking is important.
Note taking 5 tips.
Go to class prepared.
Improve your listening skills.
Review and edit your notes.
Technical Report Writing.
7cs of Effective Communication.
How to make an Effective Presentaion.
Check out all the presentation topics.
Class work of Muhammad Jahanzaib
& Furqan Ali Soomro
7cs of Effective Communication
There are 7 C’s of effective communication which are applicable to both written as well as oral communication. These are as follows:
Completeness - The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver’s mind set and convey the message accordingly. A complete communication has following features:
Complete communication develops and enhances reputation of an organization.
Moreover, they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing and no additional cost is incurred in conveying extra message if the communication is complete.
A complete communication always gives additional information wherever required. It leaves no questions in the mind of receiver.
Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the audience/ readers/ receivers of message as they get all desired and crucial information.
It persuades the audience.
Conciseness - Conciseness means wordiness, i.e, communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forgoing the other C’s of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication. Concise communication has following features:
It is both time-saving as well as cost-saving.
It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and needless words.
Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words to the audience.
Concise message is more appealing and comprehensible to the audience.
Concise message is non-repetitive in nature.
Consideration - Consideration implies “stepping into the shoes of others”. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e, the audience’s view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems. Ensure that the self-respect of the audience is maintained and their emotions are not at harm. Modify your words in message to suit the audience’s needs while making your message complete. Features of considerate communication are as follows:
Emphasize on “you” approach.
Empathize with the audience and exhibit interest in the audience. This will stimulate a positive reaction from the audience.
Show optimism towards your audience. Emphasize on “what is possible” rather than “what is impossible”. Lay stress on positive words such as jovial, committed, thanks, warm, healthy, help, etc.
Clarity - Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once. Clarity in communication has following features:
It makes understanding easier.
Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message.
Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate and concrete words.
Concreteness - Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. Concrete message has following features:
It is supported with specific facts and figures.
It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation.
Concrete messages are not misinterpreted.
Courtesy - Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender’s expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic. Courteous message has following features:
Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings of the receiver of the message.
Courteous message is positive and focused at the audience.
It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of message.
It is not at all biased.
Correctness - Correctness in communication implies that there are no grammatical errors in communication. Correct communication has following features:
The message is exact, correct and well-timed.
If the communication is correct, it boosts up the confidence level.
Correct message has greater impact on the audience/ readers.
It checks for the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the message.
It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.
Awareness of these 7 C’s of communication makes you an effective communicator.
Importance of Female Education
(This presents a main idea only. You may extend it)
There was a time when very few women received proper education. But now girls are receiving the highest education. Some people insist on having educated girl as their wives. Others are strongly against this. Let us here consider, in brief, the advantages and disadvantages of having an educated wife.
We can easily recognize, even by her appearance, a girl who has received western Education. She is fashion loving. The greater part of her time is wasted in dressing her hair. She changes the style of her hair so-often. She is too fond of using cosmetics. She puts on costly dresses of the latest fashion. She is often seen going on the roads with a hand bag in her hand or shoulders.
But there are many advantages also of having an educated wife. Being educated, she can manage her home more efficiently. She can look after the work of the servants. She can maintain accounts. Thus, by keeping the family budget, she helps the family in making the best of its income. She keeps her kitchen in hygienic condition. In short, she is of definite help as a successful manager of the household.
An-educated girl understands her duties well. She proves a source of great comfort to her husband in times of trouble. She can amuse and entertain her husband in different ways. Thus she cam keep his away from various vices. Besides this, as a mother also an educated wife is very useful. She can teach many things to her children. She can given them elementary education. She can keep them neat clean. The become healthy. Thus, both the husband and the children are benefited.
Not only this, an educated wife can also help her husband in his office work. When an author writes a book, she can help him in revising the script. She can work as a typist. by checking accounts, preparing draft, and by her personal suggestions, she can help her husband in his business.
Ups and downs come in life. If the husband is out of employment, his educated wife can be a great help to him. The husband may be ill or he may meet with some accident. In such emergencies an educated wife can get some job for herself. An unfortunate widow, if she is educated, need not remain at the mercy of others. She can stand on her legs. She can support herself and her children.
But this is only one side of the picture. A modern, educated wife, due to her love for fashion and expensive habits, is often a financial burden. She puts the poor husband often in difficulty.
An educated girl is not always obedient and faithful. She has her own friends. She does not like to observe family traditions and customs. She goes to her club, whatever may be the condition of her family. She wants to dominate her husband. In her pride and sense of superiority, she does not care for his likes and dislikes. At times, her actions put him to shame.
She likes to live in her own independent way. She does not like interference in her affairs. She wants to have her own way in every matter. Often she looks down upon the less educated or uneducated members of the family. Her independent outlook, ill-temperament and haughty nature make the home a hell.
We can safely conclude that female education is not always a blessing. Only if a girl has been educated properly at home, she can remain unaffected by the evil effects of modern education. There are girls who have received the highest university education, still they do all the domestic work. This is very important, for this promotes love, affection and harmony among the family members. An educated wife can be a great asset to her husband and her family, if she is good and respects the traditions of the family and co-operates to run it smoothly.
Problems Faced by Middle Class
(This presents a main idea only. You may extend it)
Pakistani society can broadly be divided into three classes. On the top, there are the rich. They are the people who have got everything in plenty. At the bottom there are the poor. They are ill-fed and ill clad. It is seldom that they have their own houses to live in. In between these two classes, we have the middle class. The people belonging to this class are neither very rich nor very poor. They have to maintain themselves outwardly in a fitting and decent manner.
The middle class has gone from bad to worse since independence. Mostly the people of this class are servicemen. They get a fixed pay. But prices have risen higher and higher. Taxes have been increased manifold. It has become almost impossible for the middle class to make both ends meet. The prices of even course grains, pulse and cloth have shot up. The middle class is starving.
The middle class is a class of mental workers. To maintain there health and efficiency mental workers require balanced and nourishing food. They must get milk and fruits. But the price of milk has shot up to more than fifteen rupees a litre. Fruits are so costly that only the rich can buy the, So the middle class is unable to get the nourishment it needs. It is losing its health and efficiency. It is also expected to give its children good education. But the high cost of living has made all this impossible for the middle class people. If the present trend continues, this class will no longer be able to maintain its position and status. Unemployment has also adversely affected this class. In fact, it is on the verge of extinction.
The dissatisfaction of the middle class people is dangerous for society. Mostly the people of this group are educated. They understand reality. History tells us they have always been the makers of revolutions. Further, they being the custodian of the customs and traditions of a country, their place in society is very important. So the miserable condition of this class is harmful for the entire nation.
The condition of the middle class must be improved. Articles of daily necessity and ordinary comforts should be made cheap. The Government should give it facilities of free medical and free education. The burden of taxes on this class should be lightened. Salaried people should be provided with the necessities of life at cheap rates. Otherwise the Government should increase their salaries to a comfort level. These suggestions, if implemented, can bring much relief to the suffering middle class people.
Rapid social change make it difficult for the middle class people to adjust themselves to the changed order. This causes great suffering to this class. So changes should be brought about gradually. This will help them in adjusting themselves. In any case, they should be helped to live well.
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